Energy and Earth Science

Which is the Largest diamond ever discovered…..?

Are you a person who loves gemstones. Then it is a sure fact that you will be also interested in diamonds. But, do anyone know about some mindblowing facts about the precious stone in the world ? Like how it forms ? Can we break diamond ? etc If don’t just be cool. Now let’s go through some precious information about diamonds. Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form of carbon, but diamond almost never converts to it. Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are utilized in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools. They are also the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth.

Because the arrangement of atoms in diamond is extremely rigid, few types of impurity can contaminate it (two exceptions being boron and nitrogen). Small numbers of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color diamond blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (defects), green (radiation exposure), purple, pink, orange or red. Diamond also has relatively high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of different colors).

Formation of diamonds

Most natural diamonds have ages between 1 billion and 3.5 billion years. Most were formed at depths between 150 and 250 kilometres (93 and 155 mi) in the Earth’s mantle, although a few have come from as deep as 800 kilometres (500 mi). Under high pressure and temperature, carbon-containing fluids dissolved various minerals and replaced them with diamonds. Much more recently (tens to hundreds of million years ago), they were carried to the surface in volcanic eruptions and deposited in igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites.

Synthetic diamonds can be grown from high-purity carbon under high pressures and temperatures or from hydrocarbon gas by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Imitation diamonds can also be made out of materials such as cubic zirconia and silicon carbide. Natural, synthetic and imitation diamonds are most commonly distinguished using optical techniques or thermal conductivity measurements.

Diamonds were formed over 3 billion years ago deep within the Earth’s crust under conditions of intense heat and pressure that cause carbon atoms to crystallise forming diamonds.Diamonds are found at a depth of approx. 150-200km below the surface of the Earth. Here, temperatures average 900 to 1,300 degrees Celsius and at a pressure of 45 to 60 kilobars (which is around 50,000 times that of atmospheric pressure at the Earth’s surface).

Under these conditions, molten lamproite and kimberlite (commonly known as magma) are also formed within the Earth’s upper mantle and expand at a rapid rate. This expansion causes the magma to erupt, forcing it to the Earth’s surface and taking along with it diamond bearing rocks. Moving at an incredible speed, the magma takes the path with least resistance, forming a ‘pipe’ to the surface.

As it cools the magma hardens to form Kimberlite and settles in vertical structures known as kimberlite pipes. These kimberlite pipes are the most significant source of diamonds, yet it is estimated that only 1 in every 200 kimberlite pipes contain gem-quality diamonds. The name ‘Kimberlite’ was derived from the South African town of Kimberley where the first diamonds were found in this type of rock.

Some amazing facts about diamonds

•             The word “Carat” is thought to be derived from the Carob Bean – an ancient unit of weight. The weigh is so uniform and consistent that it was used as a counter weigh when balances were used to weigh an item.

•             Diamonds were first minded in India over 2800 years ago. Learn more about the history of diamonds.

•             More Than A Million Carats Of Diamond Are Mined Each Year

•             The Graphite In You Pencil Sharpener Shares A Unique Property With The Diamond In Your Ring      

•                 Round cut diamonds only have 57 facets.

•                 The ancient Greeks believed that diamonds were splinters of stars that has fallen to the earth.

•             D, E and F are colourless diamonds. Since there is no colour found in them, there is no difference in colour. The only difference in these diamonds is the transparency. D is more transparent that E, E is more transparent than F.

•             The largest diamond ever discovered was the 3,106-carat Cullinan diamond, which was discovered in South Africa in 1905 and eventually yielded two enormous high-quality stones — one of 530.4 carats and one 317.4, both now part of the British crown jewels, as well as many smaller stones.

•             Diamonds are known as symbols of strength, courage and invincibility.

•             It is said that Cupid’s arrows have diamond tips.

•             Nitrogen molecules account for the yellowish tint or colour in diamonds. Boron molecules turn diamonds blue. Learn more about coloured diamonds.

•             Only one diamond in a million weighs one carat or more.

•             The largest cut diamond is the Great Star of Africa – 530 carats.

•             The tradition of giving a diamond engagement ring dates back to the year 1477 when Archduke Maximilian of Austria gave a diamond ring to Mary of Burgundy.

•             The tradition of wearing an engagement ring on the fourth finger of the left hand is taken from the early Egyptian belief that the vein of love (vena amoris) runs directly from the heart to the top of that finger.

•             A rough diamond looks so similar to a pebble that most people will just pass it by without giving it a second look.

•             On average a diamond will lose about 50% of its original weight when it is cut and polished.

•             Plato wrote about diamonds as living beings, embodying celestial spirits.

•             As a talisman, when given as a token of friendship or love, a diamond will give its new owner courage, faith and inner strength.

•             A diamond is four times harder than the next hardest material on the scale – Sapphires, Corundum and Rubies.

•             Diamonds were formed 3 billion years ago, deep within the Earth’s crust.

•             It is estimated that less than one percent of women, in the world, will ever wear a diamond of one carat or more.

•             A single diamond of 2 carats is worth more than double than that of 2 one carat diamonds.

•             The word “diamonds” comes from the Greek word “adamas”, which means “unconquerable and indestructible.”

•             Less than 20% of diamonds mined are considered gem-quality and can be used in jewellery.

•             Australia accounts for producing the most diamonds in volume.

•             Only 2% of all gem-quality diamonds are flawless.  

•             In 2012, an all diamond ring was created by a Swiss jeweler, weighing in at 150 karats and costing $70 million.

•             Only 20% of diamonds are used for jewelry, 80% are used for industrial purposes (drill parts, etc.)

•             A financial institution in Dubai offers a diamond studded credit card.

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